Glossary Of Terms

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For a diamond to sparkle and shine, it is necessary to remove all the impurities. This process is completed after mining and cutting. So, the rough diamonds should be quickly immersed in powerful acids in order to clear itself from the impurities. This is done to remove the dirt, residue from the girdle and especially to remove oxides or polish residues from the surface fissures. Therefore, Acidizing is a method for cleaning and removing the color coating from rough diamonds, in a solution consisting of hydrofluoric acid. This process is also called as boiling or de-oxidizing.


The American Gem Society is a non-profit professional organization of jewelers that was established in 1934 by Robert M Shipley. Around 3,400 jewelers, retailers, suppliers, individual titleholders and affiliates are committed to ethical business, consumer protection and maintenance of superior gemological skills. The Society trains and certifies jewelers, gemologists and jewelry appraisers. The goal of the American Gem Society has always been to create an organization and aid the jewelry purchasing public from misleading and fraudulent advertising. The peer reviewed application process is conducted for every member, which is then followed by the annual recertification exam in order to join the American Gem Society.


With strict standards of diamond grading that would help protect the consumers, the elite group of jewelers, started the American Gem Society Laboratories, which is affiliated to the American Gem Society. The Society was founded since 1996 to provide accuracy in the diamond grading services to the members of the industry. The jewelers are able to assess in accordance of the Four C’s: Color, Clarity, Cut and Carat Weight. To verify the quality on diamonds, a diamond grading quality report is issued to the consumers on their purchase. Laser inscription services are also provided by the American Gem Laboratories that does not affect the quality of the diamond.


The American Gem Trade Association is a non-profit organization in Dallas, Texas. The AGTA is an association of United States and Canadian trade professionals and devoted in the awareness of colored gemstones and cultured pearls to the consumers and jewelry professionals. The AGTA assists in the educational and professional development that will boost and improve knowledge on gemstone products, stay updated with latest trends and enrich your gemstone sales skills. An online e-learning platform is also launched to provide quality and get affordable educational modules on colored gemstones and pearls.

A Jour:

À jour is a French term, literally meaning allowing light to penetrate. It is used to describe an open style of setting of a gem in any mounting, which permits a view of its pavilion. Most modern mounts are of this type, unlike earlier closed setting. To identify a real diamond, a halo is produced around it as soon as the light is passed through it. And in the fake one, the light that passes right through the diamond will be observable on the other side.


Alloy is a substance composed of two or more metallic elements with non-metallic elements, such as steel. Alloy is produced to obtain properties such as durability, strength and hardness. It is generally alloyed with copper, silver, nickel or platinum in order to increase the strength of the gold. Carats or Karats are used for measuring the alloys of gold. A karat is a unit equal to 1/24 part of pure gold in an alloy. Twenty four karat is the supreme, softest and pure quality gold whereas 14 karat gold is 14 parts pure gold mixed with 10 parts of other metals.


Annealing is the method by which the metals are heated and slowly cooled to give them more tenancies and make them less brittle by eliminating various stresses and weakness. When the piece is coated with boric acid and alcohol before annealing gold or silver, it helps minimize cleanup and reduces oxidization. For proper annealing, the metal is brought up long enough to a hot temperature that causes annealing. Many times, either the temperature is not held enough or the metal may not have possessed a high temperature. Annealed diamond changes its color from green of reactor-treated to yellow orange or brown, by 200 degree Celsius to 800 degree Celsius.

Appraisal :

A diamond appraisal evaluates the value of the gemstone or jewelry item. A detailed appraisal document contains the cut, clarity, carat weight, color of all the diamonds, style of the rings, the carat weight and shape of any colored stones, the metal and fineness of the jewelry item along with any identifying marks, hallmarks or stamps. It can be acquired from a retailer or an independent diamond appraiser. Diamond appraisal documents are a must for the jewelry insurance purposes. Since, it will be added to your policy for the proper insurance coverage rate of the item.

Assay :

The assay test analyzes the purity of the gold or silver and represents the true value of the metal. A tiny piece of metal is scraped from the piece and the percentage of gold or silver is determined. Official assay offices determine whether a piece qualifies for an appropriate hallmark. The assay services include the potential to increase the diamond value, receive the current cut grade and improve the re-cut grade, obtain the estimated dollar value before and after re-cutting, verify the diamond authenticity, view the comprehensive diamond 3D models with information for re-cut improvement and print the customized grading report.

Asscher :

The asscher cut diamond similar to a square emerald cut diamond, was first created by the Asscher brothers of Holland in 1902. The asscher diamond is a square shaped diamond having dramatic cut corners that forms an octagonal outline with rectangular facets. In the 1920’s, the popularity of the asscher diamonds was at its zenith. Also, it was mostly found in the antique jewelry shops. After hundred years, the asscher diamond made a comeback with ultimate modifications and in recent trends, asscher diamond rings are immensely popular. The modern asscher cut includes the larger step facets and a higher crown. The diamond maintains its unique shape when held in four prong setting in.


A baguette cut is a stone (usually a diamond) that has been cut into a long, rectangular shape. Baguette means “stick” or “rod” in French. Some of the baguettes that are relatively small and elongated and have a rectangular shape are called straight baguettes. While the baguettes that are relatively small and elongated where two long sides taper inward to form a long trapezoidal shape are the tapered baguettes. Tapered baguettes are also called as ‘tapers’ or sometimes, ‘taps’. It is useful in ballerina rings and as side or shoulder stones. As accent stones, a baguette ring or baguette wedding band created is admired a lot by women.


A baton is a stone that is cut into a long, thin rectangular shape. It is also described a modern cut for small-trap stones set next to the rectangular-shaped stones with parallel facets. Baton is the other name of a baguette. It is similar to a baguette cut in diamonds or other gemstones, but longer to it.


Bail is a loop of metal attached at the top of a pendant, stone or other jewelry objects to allow it to hang with a chain or cord. The bail is usually positioned at the center of the necklace where the pendant hangs. Bails are available in various shapes, sizes and designs. After the completion of the necklace production, some bails are designed so that a beautiful pendant can be attached. Bails are frequently produced in large quantities with numerous choices for multiple companies and the pendant can be attached as soon as the shipping is complete.


A band is a ring that is made from a thin, flat, ribbon-like strip of material (usually metal). It is a metal loop of uniform width. Wedding rings are often called bands. Sometimes, the gemstones can also be set low into the metal. The bands are plain rings that consist of little or no raised elements, although variety of patterns can be embellished or cast into the piece. It appears to be comprised of the same width when you wear the band on your finger. The wedding bands for men and women can be created to have thin, thick or medium widths. Mens wedding bands usually comprise of satin, engraved patterns or brush finish texture. The womens wedding bands consist of diamonds that encircles the entire band. These signify love and are called as ‘eternity bands’.

Bar Channel Setting:

The bar channel setting is similar to the channel setting, but unlike the channel setting, it is a different version of mounting. In this setting, a thin metal bar is elevated between two diamonds in a circular band of diamonds. Hence, it divides each diamond from the other in individual bars. While the culet of diamond fits into individual groove or seat created for each stone, the girdle of diamond fits in the channel of bars. The grooves are positioned to allow the diamonds to stay firm.

Barion Cut:

The Barion cut was invented by the South African diamond cutter Basil Watermeyer. The name ‘Barion’ was introduced as a combination to his first name and a tribute to his wife ‘Marion’. It is an octagonal square or rectangle, with a polished and faceted girdle. A barion cut diamond has 62 facets excluding the culet. When designed perfectly, barions are brighter than the traditional designs as the L/W ration of the design decreases. Because of their higher number of facets, they require more work to cut. Barions work best in materials that are lighter colored and large sized. This is due to their depth the barions have a tendency of darkening the finished color of stone.

Base Metal:

A base metal is a commonly used metal or an inexpensive metal that is not considered to be precious like gold, copper, tin, zinc, lead or silver. Basse-taille, which means ‘low-cutting’ in French, is an enameling technique in which the underlying metal (usually gold or silver) is carved in low relief (the metal’s surface is cut away by engraving or chasing, producing a sculpted surface). The highest point of the relief carving is below the surface of the surrounding metal. Translucent enamels are applied over the carved enamel. This permits the design to remain visible through the enamel. The hue of the enamel changes with the depth of the glaze, resulting in subtle variations in color over the high and low design elements.

Basket Setting:

The diamonds in the basket setting are held firmly at the midst of the ring. Basket Setting keeps the gemstones secured within prongs that appear to be a shape of the basket. This covers a lot of the diamond from the sides enabling to protect it from any kind of damage. The basket setting is not only accessible in rings but also in diamond pendants or necklaces. While keeping it set low, the amount of light that passes through the gem is optimized. Basket prong set diamond rings, basket prong set diamond solitaire earrings, etc. is quite a popular choice among people.


The solid unweathered rock that lies beneath the surface deposits of the soil, silt, sand, gravels, etc., on the Earth’s surface is called Bedrock. The surface that is beneath the soil cover is called the rockbed. The bedrock lies hundreds of meters below the surface as these superficial deposits can be extremely thick. The uneconomical material such as soil, gravel, sand, rocks, etc., which lies above the gem-bearing or valuable bedrock, is removed before mining can begin.

Bezel Facets:

A bezel facet is also called top main facet, upper main facet, upper girdle facet or kite facet. The eight facets on the crown of a round brilliant cut gem, the upper points of which join the table and the lower points, the girdle. In short, the triangular facets border the girdle of the gemstone. A bezel facet is also known as the “crown mains”. The bezel facets have the shape of a diamond. If the stone is a cushion shaped brilliant, four of these bezel facets are called corner facets.

Bicycle Tire:

The bicycle tire cut is the misleading and slang industry term for the thick girdle of a brilliant cut diamond. The thickness of a girdle is greater than the typically medium girdle in a brilliant cut diamond or various gemstones that can be seen effortlessly with the unaided eye. This cut is made in order to add more weight as well as increase the prices. Due to the depth of the diamond, the thick girdle will not appear any larger when it is viewed from the top, despite the additional carat weight. An extremely thick girdle will add more brilliance and fire.


Blocking is a process of placing the first 17 or 18 facets on a diamond brilliant by the cross-cutter. It is also known as lapping and cross working. After blocking, the first operation in grinding and polishing a brilliant cut stone, consisting of grinding the table facet and four main side facets (bezels), four back facets and the culet. Sometimes, it is also called as cross cutting, four-square stone and four-square diamonds.

Blue Ground:

Blue ground is the decomposed, non-oxidized, slate blue or blue green, kimberlite agglomerate, which fills diamond pipes in South Africa and Brazil. It is the same as kimberlite that are usually associated with diamond mining. It is also called as blauw ground, which weathers by oxidization, at the surface to become yellow ground, a layer of oxidized kimberlite which is a deep tawny yellow. An early digger had framed the term as ‘the blue’. The blue ground consists of heavy minerals like magnetite, zircon, ilmenite, rutile, garnet, spinel, diamond, epidote, olivine and apatite.

Bead Setting:

Bead setting is a style of setting gemstones, or diamonds which consist of a row of beads pressed into metal. These are done with the help of gravers or burins that are basically tiny chisels. Beads are small globules of precious stone, glass, wood or metal, with or without facets, but always with a hole drilled through the center. The form of beads varies from cylindrical to polyhedral, oblate or irregular. A small burr of metal is raised with a graver and pushed at the edge of the stone. This burr is then polished with a concave tipped punch into a small ball over the girdle of the stone.

Bead Size:

The veteran beaders, sometimes, find it difficult to envision exactly what an 8 mm bead appears to be. To find the beads on the strand, an estimated formula is applied that divides the strand length with the size of the bead. Beads are measured in millimeters that comprise of gemstone, metal, wood, bone, horn and crystal glass. The bead size length ranges from 1mm to 16mm. The strand itself may be sold in inches, most of the time, whereas the measurement scale is applied to the actual bead.

Bearding or Girdle Fringes:

Bearded girdle are the series of imperfections caused by the too-rapid polishing on diamond girdle or the girdling(rounding) of elliptically shaped diamonds, which produces very fine hair like fractures or lines on or within the girdle. The lines are fuzzy, the diamond without the normal, smooth and waxy polish. It is also called fuzzy girdle, feathered girdle and fringed girdle. The bearding is sometimes amounted to minimal “peach fuzz” and can be removed with slight re-polishing, if the weight allows. The bearding can be occasionally removed by the faceted girdle. A lightly bearded stone can be classified as Internally Flawless (IF).

Bevel Cut/Biseau Cut:

This is any style of cutting a gemstone having a very large table and a pavilion. It may be step cut, brilliant cut, or cut in any other style. Mostly used for opaque stones, often with intaglios. Bevel cut shapes include: round, cushion, rectangular, oblong, oval, pendeloque, navette, heart, brilliant, horseshoe, shield, pentagon, lasque and hexagon shapes. It is used predominantly for less valuable gems. When facets below the girdle are identical with facets above the girdle, it is also called a double bevel cut. It is also called portrait stone, lasque diamond, table cut and biseau cutting.

Bezel Setting:

A bezel setting is a way of setting a stone in which the stone is held by a band of metal around the outside of the stone. Since the bezel is held securely in place, the diamond ring is less likely to shift from the wearer’s finger. It is also an excellent choice for people with a dynamic lifestyle. It is one of the earliest methods of setting gemstones into jewelry. Nowadays, bezel settings are used in the many modern designs. The bezel settings for diamond rings are also known as rub-over settings. Chips can also be covered in a gem with bezel settings. A bezel set engagement ring is very much preferred by the admirers of vintage style.

Black Diamond:

Black Diamonds are commonly known as carbonados and comprise of diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon. It is the toughest form of natural diamonds and an impure form of polycrystalline form. Its natural color is black color or dark grey color and various shades of green and brown. Natural black diamonds are exceptionally rare and quite inexpensive. Black Diamonds are found in Fancy Black, compared to the characteristics of other color diamonds. These are opaque diamonds with black color and one color intensity. Low quality colorless diamonds are enriched in order to burn till they obtain the opaque black color, the enhanced black diamonds are the artificial black diamonds, which are not graded the GIA certification and the price is extremely low. Black diamond rings or other black diamond jewelry crafted in rose gold has always enjoyed undivided attention of numerous jewelry admirers.

Black-Centered Stone:

Black centered stone is same as dark centered. It is a dark center effect that may be seen in round brilliant cut diamonds when viewed directly face up through the table of a stone with deep pavilion. When the depth of the pavilion of a brilliant cut diamond exceeds 44% of the average girdle diameter, it can lead to expressing the light leakage, the deep pavilion may show a dark center, when looked through the table.


Blemish is a term used for imperfections on the surface of a fashioned diamond as distinguished from an internal imperfection or flaw. The main external blemishes of diamonds are scratches, chips and nicks, pits or cavities, flats on the girdle, naats on the surface, polishing lines, burn marks, natural or naïf, rough girdle, rough or broken culet, twinning lines or naat. A blemish is to be distinguished from a flaw, which is an internal imperfection. Various types of blemishes have hardly any affect on a diamond’s appearance but the surface blemishes can affect the diamond clarity and value.

Blue Gold:

Blue Gold, as the name suggests, is gold of bluish color, made with 25% arsenic, steel, or iron as an alloy. Another way to achieve blue gold is to amalgamate indium with pure gold. The blue gold compound tends to be brittle similar to the likeness of the purple alloy. An alternative method is considered, when gold is incorporated with iron or rhodium to obtain blue gold, the resulting alloy is then treated with heat, so that the mixture oxidizes and forms a blue layer.


Brilliance is the total amount of light reaching the eye, including reflections from the external surface and reflections from the internal surface of the facets (called total internal reflection) of a gemstone, also fire and scintillation added to both. Given equal transparency, polishing, luster, and reflection due to cutting, the gem species with the highest refractive index is the most brilliant. Brilliance depends upon the exact cut of a transparent stone; when cut too shallow or too deep, the light entering the stone does not reflect past the table of the stone. The term brilliance should not be confused with scintillation. Brilliance is derived from the German term “beryl”.

Brilliant Cut:

Brilliant cut is the most popular style and cut for diamond and other transparent gemstones. Brilliant cut diamond increases the brilliance and minimizes the amount of light that escapes at the bottom of the gemstone. Brilliant cut stone exists in two octagonal pyramids. The line where the two pyramids meet is called the girdle, above which is the crown and below which is the pavilion. In a standard, brilliant cut, the depth of the crown is about 35-40% of that girdle. When the pavilion or the crown is too deep or too shallow, too much light escapes through the bottom of the gemstone. It is sometimes called a full-cut brilliant.


Bruise is a term describing: usually minute, white marks, often outlined (square or hexagonal) by tiny cleavages or fractures on the surface of the cut diamond, caused by a sharp blow from a pointed objects. It also elaborates a blemish on the rough diamonds, especially diamonds on alluvial placers. An enormous difference will be created between an IF and a VVSI clarity grade, due to the appearance of a tiny bruise. Since a bruise travels underneath the surface of the diamond, it is considered to be a blemish and an inclusion.


Blue-White is a confusing name, and one often wrongly applied, for a diamond of highest quality, whose color grade is between the top grade, which appears colorless in transmitted light or against a white background (appears blue or bluish in transmitted white light), and the grade with a yellow tinge, the difference between which is not apparent to an average inexperienced purchaser. In the United States, it is prohibited for use this term for any diamond, which, in natural light shows any color, other than a trace of blue. It is also called blue-white diamond.


Boart or bort is a natural diamond of the lowest quality, badly flawed, or discovered crystals suitable only for use as abrasive powder for industrial processes. It is also called as industrial diamond. The varieties of bort are ballas or shot boart, hailstone boart, carbonado, stewartite and framsite. It is also spelled as borate, boort, boart, bortz and bowr. Small bort crystals are used in drill bits. Bort comprises of 70% of the mined diamonds.


Brillianteering is the process of placing and polishing the remaining facets on the crown and pavilion of the brilliant-cut diamond, after the cross cutting. A standard round brilliant stone first goes to the polisher, known as blocker or lapper who cuts the table facet, eight main facets above the girdle, eight facets below the girdle, the culet and then goes to the brilliandeer (or brillianteer) or finisher, who puts the forty remaining facets on the stone. The process of diamond cutting is not always divided as mentioned above. Diamond cutting other than standard round brilliant is often finished by a single craftsman.


Bruting is a method of roughly cutting diamonds by rubbing one against another. Formerly, it used to be a laborious hand operation but now easily carried out by an electric eccentric chuck. It involves shaping the girdle, which gives the stone its basic shape. Bruting is also known as girdling. It is also the other term for cutting, shaping, rondisting and grinding rough diamond or other transparent gemstones. Bruting gives the desired fundamental shape, grinding and rounding to make facets on a revolving horizontal lap or scaife, which is made of cast iron.

Calibra Cut:

A style of cutting used for very small gemstones (mostly colored) is known as caliber or melee. It is used for stones which range in diameter from 1 mm or less to several millimeters. The term applies to a special rectangular trap cut with Sharp Square, angular, corners, often oblong or elliptical. These small stones are used for eternity rings or in fancy shapes and as pave in lines or masses, to improve the design or enhance the color and beauty of the jewel. The caliber cut designs are priced higher and the process is considered to be labor intensive. During the 1910-1935, the jewelers and artisans were professionals of the caliber cut.


A carat is a unit employed in weighing diamonds, pearls and other gemstones, which formerly ranged from 185.5 to 205.3 mg. Now the International metric carat is equal to 0.2g or 200mg, and this is the standard in a majority of the countries. Its abbreviation is ‘c’ or ‘ct’. The unit carat since April 1, 1914 was standardized worldwide as the metric carat. The term carat is derived from the seed of the Carob tree or Ceratonia siliqua. It is also known as the locust tree in the Middle East. The dried seeds are uniform in weight and were used by ancient pearl merchants as units of weight. Grand proposals with 1 carat diamond rings or 2 carat diamond rings is a tradition that is followed till now, to cajole his beloved into marrying him.


Clean is a term applied to a diamond or to other gemstones that are free from noticeable inclusion as interior flaws by gemstones or diamonds. It must be examined by 10x magnifier. The gemstones and jewels are cleaned by the means of an ultrasonic device. All the stones must be carefully cleaned before they are examined. It refers to the term that is free of foreign materials such as sand and gravel, which are without binder. Sometimes the word ‘pure’ is used as a synonym.


Cleavage is a term in gemology for act of producing a break. This term is applied to diamond crystals, which require cleaving before being fashioned. It is a name for a diamond crystal showing many flaws. In mineralogy, it means the tendency possessed by many minerals being that they are rather easily divided or being cleaved along or parallel to one or more certain planes of weak molecular bonding. Different crystals have different cleavage directions, which depend on molecular bonding, diamonds cleaved parallel to the octahedron faces. Cleavage is important in measuring the process of cleaving.


Clarity is one of the 4C’s of a diamond. It is a classification term used in the grading of polished gems or diamonds depends on the included particles, cracks, features, etc. and the surface blemishes. Most diamonds contain some minute imperfect inclusions, which were formed by nature. The term clarity is similarly used in the sorting of rough diamonds and also called purity, clarity grade. It is also called as cleanliness. The classification of fashioned gemstones or diamonds according to their clarity using their standard nomenclature of terms: flawless, pure, clean, perfect (for top grade). There are VVSI, VS, SI and pique. Lower grades are called spotted or rejections. The grades from flawless to pique must be examined through a lens. The term ‘clean’ is restricted in the USA.


Certification is a diamond grading report. A diamond certificate is essential for the authentication of a diamond’s attribute. The carat weight, clarity and color are evaluated along with the diamond’s exact measurements. Certificates signify importance in determining the value of a diamond. Diamond grading is assessed by Gemological Institute of America (GIA), American Gem Society (AGS), Hoge Raad voor Diamant (HRD), International Gemological Institute (IGI) and European Gemological Laboratory (EGL).It is always recommended to purchase a certificated diamond.

Certified Gemologist:

Gemology is, by the name suggests, the study of gemstones. A certified gemologist is a diploma or a title, awarded by the American Gem Society to members who have been qualified through passing examinations. These certified gemologists are trained by renowned schools of gemology to determine the grade and price of the gemstones. The abbreviation for the term is ‘CG’. Unique terms are given to all that have passed the essential courses to be called a certified gemologist. There are many gemology schools that subsists worldwide, Gemological Institute of America (GIA) being the most prominent one.

Channel Setting:

Channel setting is a variety of finger ring setting used for small gemstones of uniform size in which one or two rows are so close together that the edges are almost touching, arranged in a channel, usually a straight line. The channel is some form of a ‘U’ shape, with two sides and a bottom. The gemstones positioned in channel setting are smooth to touch and resist catching on clothing. This setting has been quite popular since the 1980’s, which makes it suitable for small diamonds like rubies, emeralds and sapphires. These are frequently used in anniversary rings, eternity bands, tennis bracelets and wedding bands. This setting provides protection from the girdles of diamonds getting chipped. The edges of the diamonds are also protected, which helps safeguard diamonds from the daily wear and tear or hard impacts.


Chip is a sorting category denoting cleavage of rough diamonds under ¾ cts. It is an irregularly shaped piece, broken from a gemstone or diamond. This occurs due to breakage. Once damaged, it cannot be repaired to its state of excellence. Since its internal structure has already been weakened, the diamond is more likely to break if damaged again. The value of the diamond decreases drastically when it is chipped, despite of the size and location of the chip.


Cloud is a term used in mineralogy to characterize some white tiny cottony inclusions or minute internal fractures distributed through the crystals, to produce a semitransparent or semi translucent area resembling a cloud, caused by submicroscopic gas-filled spaces. In diamond grading, it is called cloudy texture. The presence of spots and speckles covers a large area, which can affect the clarity of the diamond. This occurs regardless of a minor cloud that is not visible to the naked eye. These are generally specified on the grading reports in the form of tiny red dots or as circles and other formations.

Cluster Setting:

Cluster setting is a style of setting of gems usually in round finger ring, in which several minute diamonds or gemstones are mounted close together to create the illusion of a larger stone, or setting around larger central stone. Since the many more facets of diamonds reflect light in all directions, the result of cluster setting is mega sparkle. Cluster settings are not only beautiful but also save a lot of money. This concept can be applied to engagement rings, diamond stud earrings and pendants.


Color is a term used in optics to describe three different properties according to light: (a) property of an object such as gold is yellow; (b) characteristic of light rays such as gold reflects yellow light because of nearly full absorption of other colors, and (c) grading of sensation in the brain, which can be interoperated in special kind as the eyes perceives light selectively reflected yellow from gold. It is one of the 4C’s of a diamond. A ‘D’ or ‘E’ rated diamonds are more valuable than the ones rated as ‘R’ or ‘Y’. High color diamonds are known to be rare and popular among consumers.


Cleaver is the craftsman who separates the rough diamond crystal in two or more portions along the cleavage plane (four cleavage planes parallel to the octahedral faces), used in fashioning of diamond but rarely in other gemstones. A wedge shaped blade is used by the cleaver for cleaving diamonds. This is called as cleaver’s blade or cleaver’s knife. Cleaving produced pieces, which are of sizes and shapes that maybe of better quality and more economical. The procedure involves (a) studying of those stone that should be divided (b) marking on the stone, with ink or ink marker (c) fastening or cementing the stone on a dop stick or in a dop (d) grooving a minute V shaped notch or kerf on the stone (e) putting the blunt side in the groove and giving it an abrupt break or sharp blow, thus participle dividing the stone.

Closed Culet:

A closed culet is same as the sharp point at the bottom of the pavilion of a brilliant cut. It can be seen as a knife-edge on an emerald cut stone. It is too little to be resolved with the naked eye and can be seen only with difficulty under 10x. This is usually good in the modern cut as all the facets at the pavilion coincide with a single point.


A cross cutter is a craftsman who puts on or grinds and polishes the table facet and four main side facets on the crown and the corresponding four facets and culet on the pavilion. Cross cutters are also called as Kruisworker, lapper, cross worker or blocker. The first main eight facets placed on the diamond, apart from the table and culet, to be grounded by the cross-cutter.


Crown is the upper part of the faceted gemstone. It is a part of the brilliant-cut diamond, which lies above the girdle. In brilliant cut stone, it has the table facets and 32 surrounding facets. It is the upper portion that displays most of the design elements. A table is a large facet parallel to the girdle of the crown.


Culasse is a French term for the base or pavilion of a cut diamond or other gemstones. The thickness of a brilliant diamond is divided into two unequal parts; one-third is reserved for the upper surface of the stone and two-thirds remain to form the lower part of it, which is termed the culasse. The table has eight panes; the circumference of it is cut into facets, of which some are triangles and the other lozenges. The culasse is cut into facets, which are termed as pavilions.

Cushion Cut:

Cushion cut is the older form of the brilliant cut. It is also known as the old mine’s cut. It is a square cut with rounded corners, just like the shape of a pillow. Hence, the name of the diamond is cushion cut diamond. Cushion cuts are any form of cutting of a diamond and other gemstone, either faceted or not faceted as cabochon, for example, rectangular shaped stone with rounded ends and curved side stones. It is also called as cushion antique cut and antique cut. Sometimes, it is also called a buff-top-cut. It is the most popular diamond shape since almost around 200 years ago. Many consumers prefer the antique feel combined with its modern performance offered by the cushion cut.


Cut is one of the 4C’s of a diamond. It refers to a diamond proportions, symmetry and polish. While the polish illustrates the smoothness of the facets, the symmetry refers to the alignment of the facets. It is a form of style used in fashioning of gemstones, such as brilliant-cut, emerald-cut and step cut as opposed to rough or uncut stone. If the cut is accurate then the diamond will be more luminous and scintillating. Hence, the cut largely affects the diamond’s brilliance.


Culet is the very small flat facet polished at the base of the pavilion of a brilliant-cut or other gemstone parallel to the table facet. Its principal function is to reduce the possibility of damage to the gem but is often omitted in modern cut stone. The sharp point apex is called a closed culet, when larger than normal is called open culet. It is also spelled as culette, collet and collette. This term is derived from the Latin word ‘culus’, which means bottom. It is added to protect the integrity of the gemstone. If the culet is large then it will decrease the diamond’s brilliance as the light will pass straight through the culet facet.

Cutter or Bruter:

Cutter is a term applied to a worker fashioned gemstone. The workman who rounds up rough as a step in the fashioning of brilliant is a diamond cutter. It is a general term for any craftsman employed in the sawing, bruiting, shaping or polishing of diamonds as gems. A diamond cutter is distinguished from a gem cutter or lapidary. It is also referred to a tool in which a single diamond, shaped as a cutting point is inserted. A cutter produces the girdle profile of a polished diamond. The first association of diamond cutters and polishers was formed in Germany in 1375 and led to the development of various types of ‘cut’. The Spanish term for a diamond cutter is ‘Diamantista’ whereas the French term is ‘Diamantaire’.

De Beers Consolidated Mines Limited:

De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd is a company that is the major factor in the diamond mining and diamond industry; it was founded in 1880 in Kimberley, South Africa. It was established in order to exercise control over virtually all diamond production in South Africa. This company was the merger of the De Beers Mining Company and Kimberley mines under the Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company that is managed by Barney Barnato. It is one of the big five diamond mine in South Africa. It was named Old De Beers’ Mines. De Beers’ now operates a series of mines including Wesselton, Dutoitspan, Finsch, Bulfontein, Premier, Koffiefontein, Namaqualand and off the coast of Namaqualand and Namibia.


Depth is a vertical dimension of a diamond or other cut gemstone from the table to the culet. The determination is recorded in millimeters. The depth of a fashioned stone measured from the table to the pavilion end, conducted as percentage of cut stone diameter at the girdle. For a round diamond, the depth percentages should be between 58% and 64% and the table percentages should be 53% and 64% whereas for a princess cut diamond the depth percentages and the table percentages should be between 65% and 80%.

Diamond Parcel Paper:

Diamond parcel papers are the specially folded paper packets, in which a diamond or diamonds are held for carrying, or for transporting in a parcel. They are also called as diamond papers. It demonstrates the excellence of the stone. As the paper is known to be soft and strong, it doesn’t allow the stones from jumping around when unconcealed. It protects by handling the rough loose diamonds.


Dispersion is the property of transparent gemstone, which breaks up white light into the colored ray or spectrum, when a white light passes across two inclined faces of the cut stone or prism. The rays of white light are spread due to slowing and bent according to their wavelength from shortest red to the longest the violet. In gemology, it is known as fire. The interval between such color varies in different gems and is measured according to the difference between the refractive indices of the red ray in Fraunhofer line (B at 687 nm) and the blue violet ray in Fraunhofer line (G at 430.8 nm). Diamond’s dispersion is 0.044. It is also known as dispersion of light and scattering.


Each diamond comprises of diverse measurements. The dimensional measurements are done in millimeters. They vary from the standard millimeter dimension. A millimeter is a unit of length that equals one-thousandth of a meter with the abbreviation mm. The measurements of the diameter of the crown or the top are essential. Also, the measurement of the depth or height of the diamond is necessary. The two measurements as well as the carat weight are used to determine a specific diamond.


Dop is a solder, any copper or brass cup with a malleable copper or wooden holder filled with low-melting point lead tin, in which a gem or diamond is soldered to be held during sawing, bruiting or polishing, and it has a copper tail. It is also called a cleaver’s stick. It is a mechanical device in which the small diamond is held between steel jaws, while enabling the gem to be semi automatically adjusted without resetting. The dop marks are minute burned marks on the surface of the polished diamonds caused by overheating of the claws of the mechanical dop.


Extraction is a chemical operation of removing one or more substances from others by means of a solvent. It is used in obtaining a metal from its ore. It is also a term applied to removal of diamonds from concrete. There are many carrot-like bodies that cut through the older rocks; it is mentioned as kimberlite pipes or diatremes. Some pipes may or may not have diamonds whereas other pipes are rich in diamonds. The pipes erode more than the surrounding rocks to form bowl like depressions. When the rocks are eroded, diamonds are set loose from the kimberlite. The kimberlite weathers to a yellowish product referred to as yellow ground. The diamonds are then extracted from the yellow ground. The blue ground also known as the fresh kimberlite rock holds the diamonds, which should be crushed in order to release them.

Extra Facet:

Extra facet is a small facet, occasionally added to those required by the cut, usually to remove a poor part or blemished part of the stone, such as chips, naturals and nicks. Generally, a modern round brilliant diamond has 58 facets (57 facets and a pointed culet) that means when an extra is added, it would be regarded as an extra facet. An extra facet does not exert influence on the quality unless it is very obvious, or it differs from a flawless or an internally flawless diamond. Sometimes it is caused by errors in the polishing. Usually it is seen near the girdle. When extra facets are relatively large, they downgrade the make, but very small facets do not downgrade the stone in the clarity scale. It is also called as false facet.

Emerald Shape:

Emerald cut is a style of rectangular or square trap-cut faceted large stones on a copper lap charged with diamond powder. It is favored for emeralds, diamonds and other transparent colored stones with the corners beveled and all surfaces covered by a series of rectangular or square facets or steps on crown and pavilion, parallel to girdle. It is also called as trap cut, step cut and oblong cut. The table is a large rectangle or square. A new modification is the royal 144 cut. If the form is in square, it is known as square emerald cut. A mixed-cut consists of a brilliant cut on the crown and trap-cut on the pavilion. An emerald cut is observed through the table, when it is cut perpendicular to the optic axis (or to the length of the prism), a yellowish green hue caused by the ordinary ray can be seen. A cut at right angle to this direction, or when the table is parallel to the optic axis or prism causes a bluish green color mixture of ordinary (more than 50%) and ordinary rays can be seen.

Faceted Girdle:

Faceted girdle is a term employed for the girdle of a diamond cut stone (or other gemstone), on which there are many small facets, planes or nearly planed, then polished to improve the brilliance of a cut gem. Surrounding the entire circumference, very small facets are created and this faceting process separates the tiny feathers, during the bruting process. A girdle with 40 facets is found on the amulet-facet diamond and on a royal 144 cut diamond. It is also referred to as the girdle facet, ground girdle, skew facets, skill facets, cross facets, break facets or polished girdle.

F/IF Diamonds (Flawless/Internally Flawless):

Flawless is a clarity grading of polished diamonds. The abbreviation term for flawless is ‘Fl’. It describes a diamond or other gemstone, which is free from all internal or external blemishes or flaws of every description as observed with a 10x magnifier. ‘IF’ is the acronym for internally flawless grade. Both are used by GIA. Internally Flawless is also a Scan.D.N clarity grading scale of polished diamonds, which are internally free from features visible under 103 magnification, but with small external blemishes such as scratches, minor naturals, etc.

Face Up:

Face up is a cut gem or diamond with the table of the stone facing the viewer, usually the position in which a mounted stone is observed. It is also a term used by Australian miners for cleaning up, grinding and polishing stone to enhance the surface. When a cut diamond is viewed from above the table, brilliance, color and clarity are observed. This is the face-up appearance. The face-up color is the color that is observed, when viewed from above the table.


A facet is a term applied to a polished plane-geometrical surface of a cut diamond or other gemstones of various shapes and sizes. In French, it is spelled as ‘facette’ whereas in Spanish, it is spelled as ‘faceta’. Sometimes, it is also used for the inclined facet at the top of the prismatic crystal. The most famous facet arrangement is probably the round brilliant cut that is used for diamond and many colored gemstone. In the late 17th century, a first early version of what would become a modern brilliant cut was designed by the Italian named Peruzzi. A faceting machine is used for holding diamonds and other stones during grinding or polishing facets upon them.


Fancies is an attractive colored diamond such as emerald green, sapphire blue (of poor color), red, canary, orange, pink (seldom more than a tint), tints of violet, reddish-brown, coffee-brown, golden brown, blue (the darker rare), ambers and black. Many diamonds that are used as gemstones are slightly colored or colorless. The colored diamonds, which are referred to as ‘fancies’, can be exceptionally rare and most valuable. These diamonds are known as fancy diamonds. Colored diamonds are known to be vivid and sold for more than million dollars per carat. Diamonds have a hardness of 10, a specific gravity of 3.5, and a refractive index of 2.417 - 2.419.


Any style of diamond cutting or other transparent gemstones, other than the round brilliant cut, which is rarely used, such as marquise, emerald cut, pear-shaped cut, baguette, pentagon, half moon, mixed cut, irregular forms, unique cut (one-of-a-kind) triangle, key-stone and oblong is called a fancy cut. It is generally cut in an unusual way. It is also known as a modern cut or fanciful cut. The familiarity of a specific fancy cut is mostly influenced by fashion. These cuts are usually not held in the same standards as Tolkowsky-derived round brilliants.

Fancy Yellow:

Yellow diamonds are found in various shades. The color intensities of the yellow diamonds are fancy light, fancy deep, fancy intense and fancy vivid. This yellow diamond color scale depends on the price and rarity. Fancy light yellow diamonds are quite inexpensive as their prices are similar to I color diamonds. While its appearance is that of pale yellow, it is not highly recommended. The fancy yellow diamonds that are one step above the fancy light are usually known of yellow diamonds, which consists of an average price. Fancy deep yellow diamonds are known by its peculiar color and usually not preferred by all. Fancy intense yellow diamonds has an exceptionally pure color and deserves the name of ‘Canary diamonds’ whereas fancy vivid yellow diamonds are the rarest of them all and gleam like no other diamonds.


Fault in gemology is sometimes a synonym for flaw or imperfection. In mineralogy, it is a term for the dislocation in a crystal structure, also subsequent separation of breakage between the atomic planes, such as cleavage, cloudy effect or feather. It is also a local term used by Australian miners for fractures resulting in tectonic movements, in which opal and other gems can occur. Faults, scratches or chips disrupt the appearance of the diamonds.


Feather is a series of elongated and unregulated liquid of crystalline inclusions that resemble a feather, sometimes found in natural crystals of ruby, sapphire, paste, etc. Some of the cleavages or fractures in diamonds are so shallow that they appear to be a scratch at first glance, such feathering is called hairline feather. Most feathers are insignificant and do not visibly affect the brilliance or compromise diamond integrity, also called as fracture. It is also called flag, glets or inclusions. Generally, it is a commercial term for any flaws inside a gemstone. Feathers can ruin a stone by making it fragile or changing its color. It also adds to its beauty.


Fezel is a feather-like white inclusion often seen inside a diamond along the twining plane of macles. It also consists of white, gray to black, streamer like inclusions in gemstones. It is also spelled as vezel, faisel or faizel. It is also called the knot-line.


Findings are the tools and equipment used in jewelry. Any of the small, functional and handy pieces of pre-made jewelry parts merge to make a finished piece of jewelry, are also called as findings. Examples of findings are clasps, hooks, pin backs, jump rings, bails, gold balls, earring posts and earring backs. It is extremely convenient and cost effective to purchase these “parts” pre-made.


Fingerprint or Fingerprint inclusion is a type of inclusion commonly seen in sapphire or ruby (rarely garnet), cloudy, net-like hollow inclusion filled with liquid and gas that form patterns resembling fingerprints around crystal inclusion such as in Thailand (Siam) rubies, spinel and YAG. It results from interior cracks that have healed. It is also sometimes called as butterfly wings. When the fingerprints are viewed in reflected light, they can shine the light incredibly.


Finish is the term applied to the excellent quality, polish, symmetry, proportions and general fashioning of gem diamond. It is also classified as diamond external clarity. In such a system, the external grade is a synonym for finished quality. If the diamond is polished neatly, it has a good finish. It is also called as fine quality.


Fire is the flashing spectrum of colors seen from the crown of the cut diamond, when it is moved, which is the result of its high dispersion and a high refractive index, emphasized by faceting. The fire in diamonds is owed to high dispersion and high refractive index. It is incorrectly used in USA by jewelers for play of color. This stone has been set in jewelry. It is the flashing spectrum of colors seen in other gemstones. It is also a term used in opal with good play of colors usually vivid red, but often with other vivid contrasts. It is also called as fire opal or live opal.

Fish eye:

Fish eye is a dark gray ring of light caused by reflection of the girdle seen around the table of a shallow stone, cut diamond with a pavilion depth of less than 40%, making it appear through the table (face-up) like a baleful eye. It is also called as cod’s eye. It is sometimes used for moon stone with girasol effects. It is frequently used for opal with girasol effects. Fish eye is also a commercial term for any flat faceted diamond or other transparent stone cut so that its center is dark.


The small diamonds line the shank and are held together by separating the small cut-outs in the metal that are in the shape of small “v’s”. It places significance on the center stone. This type of setting in the shank gives a vintage feel. When the diamonds are placed in this engagement ring setting, it gives the appearance of a larger diamond and the illusion of more sparkle.


Fissure in diamond grading is a term applied to an elongated crack in a diamond’s surface. It is an extensive surface of fracture or a crack in rock along which there is a distinct separation, often filled with other minerals. It is also a geological term for a high, narrow and relatively straight opening formed by parting of the earth’s crust.


Comfort fit bands are designed by using extra metal and making the inside of the band is slightly in the shape of a dome. These wedding bands are usually suggested for men because of the effortless manner in order to squeeze into the large knuckles of the ring finger. Hence, it is comfortable for the wearer. Comfort fit bands are made with precious metals such as platinum and gold. It is a little expensive than non-comfort fit bands. Standard fit bands have no extra dome of metal but a straight interior. You can also learn more about other styles of engagement rings and wedding bands in our Knowledge Center.

Flat end:

Flat end is a term applied to thin diamond cleavage. A flat is a horizontal ore body, regardless of formation type. Cleavage of a diamond has a strong tendency for cleavage along the octahedral surface of the natural crystal. In trade the cleavage planes are known as grain of a diamond.


In gemology, flaw is sometimes used as a synonym for flaw or imperfection. Internal imperfections or faults in diamonds or other gemstones such as cracks, inclusions of other substances, internal twinning, cleavage, a liquid filled cavity, or fracture of visible imperfect crystallization. It is a term to distinguish from a blemish, which is a surface imperfection. In some specimens of rubies and sapphires, the inclusions caused the effect of asterism, or a structure of an opal, or dendritic inclusions in a moss agate. Any interior or exterior flaw, blemish, imperfection or inclusion in a diamond or a gemstone can be examined under 10x magnification.


Flawless is a term used to describe a diamond or other gemstone, which is free from all internal and external blemishes or flaws of every description as observed with a 10x magnifier. It is often abbreviated as: Fl or IF (Internal Flawless). A flawless diamond is a clarity grade used by GIA for polished diamond, which is free from blemishes and inclusions invisible to unaided eye and under 10x magnification corresponds to Scan. D.N clarity grade with Fl.


The term fluorescence is derived from the term mineral fluorite, which is a variety of luminescence. Certain minerals exhibit an effect of producing visible electromagnetic light, when irradiated by ultraviolet light, cathode ray or X rays, or other forms of radiation of a suitable wavelength. The emitted light has another form of energy different to absorbing light. Fluorite displays blue fluorescence under ultraviolet ray when activated by rare earth metals replacing Ca²+ as defect in the structure. The effect fluorescence is a very useful device in prospecting minerals and in ore dressing such as scheelite, which is a colorless mineral difficult to distinguish from rock crystal in normal light but in darkness it fluoresce under ultraviolet light.


Flute is a thin folding diamond parcel paper. It is used to put a diamond in. It is one or more small specially folded paper. These special sheets of paper are a container for diamonds to avoid damaging each other. It is also called diamond parcel paper, diamond paper or folding diamond paper.

Full-Cut Brilliant:

Full-Cut Brilliant is a round brilliant-cut diamond or other colored gemstone with a total of 58 facets including the table and culet. It consists of 32 facets above the girdle and 24 facets below the girdle or at the pavilion. On the colored gemstone, the girdle is usually polished, but seldom on diamonds. The term used as a synonym for melee. It is also called full cut or triple cut brilliant. Modified full cut brilliant was developed in the seventeenth century from the old single and then double cut brilliant.

Four C’s:

The terms used to describe the four critical things to consider when buying a diamond: color, clarity, carat and cut. Color is a term used in optic to describe three different properties according to light: (a) property of an object such as gold is yellow (b) characteristic of light rays such as gold reflects light yellow, because of nearly full absorption of colors, and(c) grading of sensation in the brain, which can be interoperated in special kind as the eye perceives light selectively reflected yellow from gold. Clarity is a classification term used in the grading of polished gems or diamonds depends on the included particles, cracks, features, etc. and the surface blemishes. Most diamonds contain some minute imperfect inclusions, which were formed by nature. Carat is the unit that refers to the purity of solid gold and gold alloy used in jewelry. To avoid confusion, the term for measuring the purity of solid gold and gold alloy is spelled karat. Cut is the form or style used in fashioning of gemstones, such as brilliant-cut, emerald-cut and step cut as opposed to rough or uncut stone.


Fracture is a general term for the freshly broken surface of gemstones and minerals other than along planes of cleavage, not to be confused with cleavage directions. That is sometimes a useful identifying feature. Some typical fractures are described: conchoidal (shell-like), even, uneven, hackly, fibrous, silky and splintery. It is also called as feather. Thus calcite has a perfect rhombohedral cleavage, but conchoidal fracture. In structural geology, a general term for any breaks in a rock, which includes cracks, rocks and joint. It is also an irregular, curved, splintery chip or break on a diamond along a direction other than the cleavage plane.

Fracture Filling:

Fracture filling is used as a method in enhancing gems that have been found for over 2,500 years. It is the last step in the process of diamond enhancement. Diamond enhancement is a process to raise a higher value, intensity, color, attractiveness, quality, etc. It is a series of imperfections caused by the too-rapid polishing on a diamond girdle, which produces very fine hair-like fractures, small cleavages, or lines, on or within the girdle. The lines are fuzzy, the diamond without the normal smooth, and waxy polish, can be filled with high refractive materials such as epoxy or lead-based gases and capable of obscuring the tiny cleavages. It is also known as laser drilling diamonds or filled diamonds.


It is basically any device or an instrument that is used to calculating the the weight of the diamonds, by estimating the physical dimensions of a diamond such as diameter, length, depth in millimeters.


To put it in simple words the historical and legendary study of precious stones is referred to as gemology. To put it in a more detailed way it is the combined art and science of studying, cutting, valuating, buying, and selling of of natural gemstones. It is considered as a geoscience and a branch of mineralogy and with the growing jewelry market for demand of gemstone rings it has perhaps become one of the most important field of study at present.


The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) founded by Roger Shipley, is an autonomous, non-profit organization and the world's most respected and foremost authority in gemology. Founded in 1931, GIA's mission is to protect all buyers and sellers of diamonds and gemstones by setting and maintaining the standards used to evaluate precious stone quality. It is headquartered in Carlsbad, California (U.S) and functions actively in 14 countries, with 7 laboratories, 12 campuses, and 4 research centers all around the world. GIA certified gems, guarantees the consumer that it has been examined by an unbiased gemologist who ensures that maximum level of reliability.

Gold (Au):

Perhaps no other metal is considered as legendary and is the first ever metal known to mankind. Gold is the most malleable metal with an extraordinary shine, thus exceptionally well suited for making gold engagement rings and jewelry. Found naturally in a gleaming yellow color it is defiant to tarnish and corrosion. Gold purity or percentage is measured in karats denoted by letter “K” represented in range of 1 to 24 karat. Since 24 karat is pure gold, it is the most expensive, but less durable as 100% gold is too soft for extended usage. Due to its pliable nature gold is commonly used in karat weights of 18 kt (75% gold), 14 kt (58% gold), and 10 kt (41% gold).


Like most other precious metals in jewelry, gold is commonly measured in troy weight and by grams where (1 troy ounce is equal to 31.103 metric grams). Known to be the most accurate and globally recognized unit of measure, gram is also alternatively spelled as gramme in British English. The only unit symbol for gram that is recognized by the International System of Units (SI) is “g” and is the metric system unit of mass.


Is a sort of rim at the widest part of a diamond by which it is normally set. It is the resulting circumference of the adjoining crown and pavilion angles at the widest part of the stone.


The outermost and widest edge which divides the crown on the top and pavilion at the bottom in the diamond is called the griddle. It is a sort of rim at the widest part of a diamond by which it is normally set or the resulting circumference of the adjoining crown and pavilion angles at the broadest part of the stone. A girdle may be faceted (a succession of small polished sides passing around the diamond), bruted (a singular uninterrupted rough surface going around the diamond), or polished (a bruted girdle polished smooth). The girdle is represented according to its width. Often, the width of the girdle deviates at dissimilar points around the diamond.


Girdling also often called bruting is the shaping of the elliptical cuts. It is the procedure whereby two loose diamonds are set onto spinning axles motioned in opposite directions, which are then set to grind against one other to shape each diamond into a round shape. Also referred to as "rounding up," the intent of girdling is to make over the edge that detaches the crown and pavilion on a finished diamond. Basically it is the thickness of the girdle that controls its durability, but it is the roundness that eventually controls symmetry. It can be used for diamond of circular shapes, straight cuts as well the ones with fancy shapes too. Nowadays bruting/girdling is done using a lathe-like machine which is power-driven by an electric motor.


In the diamond and jewelry industry there are many such people who have been trained to grade diamonds or have acquired a degree in the field from any recognized diamond grading body. Thus putting it in a more uncomplicated way any skilled professional person who examines, evaluates and separates polished diamonds into sizes and quality grades by clarity, color, and accuracy of cut in relation to the 4c’s is a grader. The professional skills of a specialist diamond grader are carried out by a working in one of the many independent, certified laboratories around the world offering diamond grading facilities.


It is a name used by cutters and polishers to describe the visual indication of the crystal structure of a diamond. Basically grain is a small, accumulated area of crystal distortion which can be white or dark, and might have a thread-like or pinpoint-like appearance. Grain lines are a creation of irregular crystallization that occurs when a diamond is formed. Colorless grain lines do not normally impact diamond clarity unless they exist in sizeable masses. Whereas white or colored grain lines can bring down a diamond's clarity grade. Grain lines can also connect across several facets and are caused by a change of grain direction during its crystal growth.


It is a thin ring, inconspicuous in appearance, worn on a finger in front of a valuable ring. Their purpose is to hold tour precious ring in place and keep it from spinning or sliding off the finger. A guard ring is thus is a specialized type of creation fashioned to protect both sides of the engagement ring while also enhancing its style. Guard rings are often worn in pairs, with or without stones, on either side of your precious regular or engagement ring. They can be crafted with contrasting metal color to give a mixed metal look. Also, they come in an ample variety of shapes, designs, and motifs to add quality to your treasured sparkle.

Gypsy Setting:

Gypsy or Hammer style setting has becoming increasingly popular. Also refereed commonly as shot setting or flush mount setting. As the name indicates, Gypsy setting is when the brilliant diamond or precious gemstone appears to sit flush deep within the surface of the metal. Akin to a bezel set rings where the crown of the diamond is the only exposed area, however in gypsy setting the gem or diamond in the ring is in a more deep-set, lower position and flush with the metal. This setting is predominantly used for creating classy mens jewelry. More so, Gypsy setting is used for accent diamonds or smaller stones set into wedding rings.


Since they are formed deep under the earths surface each natural gemstone while being different in color is also unique in their patterns and inclusions that can vary in hue and structure, one such inclusion in gemstones is hair like formation which resembles long thread or strand of human hair like pattern. Certain gemstones include these hair inclusion in a large amount and in some it is found to be just minimal more so they also sometimes resemble a net-like appearance or reticulated needles.


When referring to the word hardness it has a very peculiar scientific meaning in gemology, where according to its scientific definition hardness is the ability of gems to resist abrasion or scratching. Hardness in fact relies on the bonds within the crystal structure that hold the atoms together. The hardness of a mineral is, broadly its scratchability. Thus every mineral can be ranked based on those others minerals it can scratch.Minerals are measured and numbered on a relative hardness scale, known commonly as the Mohs scale that ranks minerals from 1 to 10 of hardness where the intervals between the numbers are very different (e.g. a diamond is 10, and the hardest, is far harder than the next mineral down the list).


In reference to a diamond or gemstone engagement ring head is a part of a ring that contains the prongs or the basket that holds the precious stone in place at the center within its setting. It is the primary object or also referred to as the top portion in a ring that includes the basket and prongs that holds the center diamond. The head is formed by ample number of prongs, how much ever one desires, along with the base and usually a peg on the bottom to hold it to the mounting. Each prong extends upwards and outward-bound from the head, gripping the precious rock at the hub, with an arch at the top.

Head Shape:

Depending on the shape of the precious stone that has to be set in the center the head shape also varies. It may change in depth or width and is available in various shapes and sizes just matching to the size and shape of the center stone. Most common head shapes or baskets used in stone setting include the round cut, princess cut, oval shaped, marquise cut, emerald cut, pear shaped and trillion cut. Each claw or prong stretches in the upward and outward direction to from the head shape and arching over the precious stone to form a bonded and lasting grip.

Head Size Range:

The head size range is basically determined by the carat weight of diamond or gemstones that can be properly mounted in a specific head of the ring. As the head has to accommodate both the stone's width and depth. So the range size of the head differs if the stone is much larger or too small. Every precious stones shape and weight is distinct so when setting the head for a ring it is necessary to ascertain the size of the rock so as to manage the head size range in a ring.

Heart Shape:

The heart shaped diamond is the ultimate symbol of love and is known as the most romantic of all the diamond shapes. The heart cut diamond is fundamentally a pear shaped diamond with a cleft at the top whee the round end is flattened and calculated and the girdle widened until the length is roughly equal to the width. It consists of 58 facets and is full of brilliance and fire. Popularly used to craft solitaire pendants and heart shaped rings, thus When selecting a heart shape, symmetry is a very crucial characteristic, as it is of vital importance that the two halves of the heart are absolutely indistinguishable. The cleft (between the two lobes) should be crisp and well-defined, and the sides that curve down should have a slight rounded shape.


In simple terms the depth of a diamond is its height and is described in millimeters which is calculated from the diamonds tip of the culet to the top of the table. It can also be called as the estimated size of a diamond, measured vertically from the top. There are commonly two measurements of depth, first is the real depth measurement in millimeters and the second is the depth percentage that shows how deep the diamond is in relation to its width. The depth percentage predetermines the ratio of the diamonds depth or height (from the table to the culet) to the diamond's total diameter.

Hook Clasp:

The hook clasp has been and still remains a popular choice of fastening jewelry. It is the easiest way to secure two ends of a jewelry piece such as pendants, bracelets etc together so that they be put on and can be worn with ease is a hook clasp. It is a part of the clasp that physically moves to lock the jewelry it in place. The hook is basically a variation of the toggle clasp. A hook is connected to one side of the jewelry and and an eye is attached to the other end to fasten it. In order to secure the jewelry piece the eye needs to be hooked onto the hook. Hook clasp is a good alternative for delicate jewelry as it can be easily be worn and removed.


The term hue is used to define the property of light by which its color is classified in reference to the spectrum. Every precious stone has it own color and their gradation or the variety of its color is determined by its hue. The hue of a precious stones has an effect on its value. Some shades are more sought after than others, some are rarer, and some, with varying measures or tinge are considered better value for money for those on a more limited budget. The more pure a stones hue, the more valuable it is said to be.

Ideal Cut:

As assessed by trained graders a diamond cut with higher grades are given to those stones whose symmetry and proportions nearly match the particular "ideal" which is used as a benchmark. An ideal cut diamond has the best combination of angles that allows light to enter the diamond and be reflected back, to create the best alliance and brilliance and fire. Ideal cuts often create perfectly aligned arrows and heart patterns that can be seen under magnification. Calculated mathematically by Marcel Tolkowsky those proportions and facet angles that produce peak brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire in a round diamond are considered by many to represent the ideal cut. So if someone is looking for a high quality diamond that brilliantly reflects light, this is the cut for you.


Founded in the year 1999 by Curtis Lowery, Independent Gemological Laboratories is an industry leader in diamond grading that specializes in grading jewelry set with large diamonds. IGL Laboratories is an respected diamond grading laboratory that has pioneered the development of the first scientific system used to evaluate how well a diamond has been cut. IGL has been acclaimed as a worldwide innovator due to our extensive research and development in determining the cut grade of diamonds. Th IGL Laboratories are thus respected by diamond manufacturers, jewelry retailers, and consumers alike for accuracy and consistency in every aspect of diamond grading.

Illusion Setting:

Also famed as invisible setting, it is more intricate than others. An illusion setting is basically a prong setting designed to make a diamond appear bigger than it actually is. This is established by a ring of metal encompassing the girdle of the diamond. This ring diffuses the outline of the stone causing it to look big. The metal that surrounds the stone usually has an interesting design. And though the diamond is still visible, it’s the setting that is the illusion. Famously used to set colored gemstones rings but can also be used with diamonds. It is used for square shaped stones which are put close jointly like bricks. This setting is similar to pave but has less metal work showing, offering more brilliance. And though it is a stunning setting but very expensive and comes with a high risk of diamonds falling out.


As diamonds are formed deep within the surface of the earth , under extreme pressure and heat thus they mostly contain certain birthmarks commonly referred to as imperfections. Thus it is a general term used to mention any external blemish or internal inclusion or flaws on or in a diamond, it could either be a feather, crack, carbon spot, cloud, knot, fissure, scratch or any other blemish of any form evident in a gems, when it is examined by a trained eye under a 10-power magnifier. Diamonds which contain many or evident inclusions or blemishes have less brilliance for the flaws intervene in the path of light through the diamond.


It is a generic term referring to any outer blemish or inner inclusion or flaw found in a diamond. It could either be a carbon spot, air bubble, knot, fissure, scratch etc. In broad terms inclusions are identifying characteristics in a diamond, either inside the diamond or on its surface. It is often referred to as nature's fingerprints. They are what make a diamond so unique, as a fingerprint does for a person. These birthmarks are measured on a scale of perfection known as clarity. Some common names of inclusions include cloud, crystal, pinpoint and feather. The position of inclusions can affect the clarity of a diamond and therefore also its value.

Inside Diameter:

Mostly used for measuring wedding or engagement rings that are worn traditionally on the left hand finger, the inside diameter is thus the easiest way to measure the accurate size of your ring. The diameter of a ring measures the distance across the middle inside, which can be used to gauge a ring size. Thus the inner diameter is measured in a straight line across the center, inside the ring. It means the distance measured on the inside of the ring. To measure the size of the ring accurately, the inside diameter is measured from the inside width of the bead ring and ranges from 8 mm (or 5/16") to 19 mm (or 3/4").

Internal Stress:

Internal stress existing within the diamond is a result of thermal changes, having been worked, or irregularity of molecular structure. Basically stress in a diamond or gemstone is a result of inclusions or other structural irregularities, visible through the polariscope. While most of clarity characteristics are inherent qualities of the rough diamond and have been present since the earliest stages of the diamond crystal's growth or formation below the surface of the earth, a few clarity flaws are actually a result of the harsh internal stress that a diamond undergoes during the cutting process itself. In fact such is its pressure that newly mined diamonds can fly to pieces from internal stress.

Iridium (Ir):

Iridium is a metal of the platinum group and is one of the scarce elements in earth's crust which was discovered in 1803 by Smithson Tennant who named it on the Greek goddess Iris, as it personifies the rainbow due to the striking and diverse colors of its salts. Iridium is a chemical element with symbolic representation Ir and atomic number being 77. It is a very hard and brittle, silvery-white transition metal of theplatinum group and is broadly attributed for being the second densest element. Iridium and platinum are often alloyed together as it is the most corrosion resistant metal known and thus it increases the work-ability of platinum and is beneficial to use in platinum jewelry.


For a rough loose diamond passes through a long passage of journey to form under the earth's surface, the contact with high-temperature leads into the diamond's crystalline structure that often leads to parallel lines formation or irregular shape of these crystals. Basically irregularity is a diamond shape classification, where irregular crystallization that takes place when a diamond is formed under earths crust. Crystals tend to cleave or split between layers of atoms while they are formed. Due to its crystal structure, diamond has certain planes of weakness along which it can be split in an irregular fashion.


The term Karat is commonly used to measure the gold content or its purity. Karat is basically a unit used to measure the purity of gold. Or it can also be refereed to as the indicator of the amount of pure gold present in a metal. The higher the karatage, the more purer the gold. Thus 24-karat is measured to be pure gold or 100 percent gold. Gold jewelry is usually made from 18K and 14K gold, which contain other metals for strength. 18K yellow gold consists of 75% gold and 25% other metals, usually copper and silver whereas 14K yellow gold consists of 58% gold and 42% other metals.

Loose Diamond:

In basic terminology a loose diamond, usually means a diamond that is cut and polished. It is basically the end product that commenced its journey with a rough diamond that was mined out from the surface of the earth. Loose diamonds can be of varied shapes and sizes that are popularly known in the jewelry world. So any diamond that is ready for sale and or all set to be mounted on either a ring, a pendant, earring or any other piece of jewelry is a loose diamond. It is always easier to inspect the 4 C’s from all different aspects meaning its weight, dimensions, depth, color, and clarity when you have a loose diamond in hand. Customers often like to purchase loose diamonds for safe investment purposes, which they keep for later use.


A loupe is basically a simple, small magnification device used to see minute details in a more closer vision. It is that magnifying tool which is used to examine gemstones and jewelry by jewelers. A loupe does not have a connected handle and its focusing lens are encased in an opaque like cylinder or cone that encloses to protect the lenses when not in use and thus loupes are also called hand lenses. Jewelers normally use a monocular, hand-held loupe in order to magnify gemstones and other jewelry that they wish to inspect. A 10 X magnification is good to use for scrutinize jewelry and hallmarks and is the Gemological Institute of America's standard tool for grading diamond clarity.

Loupe Clean:

As the clarity scale indicates the size, number and positioning of the characteristics of precious stones when examined with a 10 x magnification loupe. Diamonds that have no inclusions that are visible to the naked eye and are of excellent quality are called loupe clean or also abbreviated commonly as LC. So basically it is a trade term to describe a gem when it is said to be loupe clean when it has no inclusions or defects that are visible when the gem is viewed with 10 times magnification. Thus a diamond can only be termed loupe clean if an expert analyzes it with a 10 x achromatic and aplanatic loupe in regular light and it is found to be perfectly transparent and free from any inclusions.


Luster is that property which describes how light is reflected on the surface of a mineral. Or can also be described as the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral. The word indicates its origins back to the latin lux, meaning light, and mostly means radiance, gloss, or brilliance. It is one of the properties mineralogists look at while ascertaining the identity of a mineral. As per study the cut diamonds are said to have adamantine luster, an extraordinary and prized luster which is marked by exceeding shine and brilliance. Raw, uncut diamonds have a more greasy luster and diamond is considered the superlative example of adamantine.


It is a term used to describe small diamonds. The diamond weight for melee diamonds extent from as low as 0.001 carats to 0.18 carats. Melee diamonds are usually named by customers as diamond chips. It is because the word diamond chip seems like a rock with cracks or is chipped. This term is mostly not mentioned by jewelers as it is considered to be uncomplimentary. And because the diamond and jewelry industry is very specific in using certain terms thus these small chips are refereed to as melee diamonds. Relative quantity of the diamonds mined out, cut, and produced in the world are melee. The diamonds in melee sizes are usually sold in parcels and lots.


It mostly refers to the proportions of a diamond's cut that make the diamond sparkle beautifully. Many might be aware of the fact that the exact diamond proportions ascertain the cut of a diamond. If you posses a stone with perfect diamond proportions, the diamond will refract the light in a superior way. It will thus display a lot of sparkle, brilliance and scintillation. This is exactly what you are looking for in a beautiful diamond. That is the reason why exact proportions of a diamond have such an immense impact on the beauty of a diamond and why the above proportions will make sure that your diamond will show an excellent light performance.


The world malleability is derived from the word malleable, meaning the capability of great deformation without breaking, when subject to compressive stress. Basically when talking in terms of jewelry it means the degree to which a metal like gold or silver etc can be shaped, altered or controlled to craft jewelry or gold engagement rings. When used in context to a physical item, malleability describes how well a substance or metal can be bent, molded, changed or rolled thin, without breaking or getting cracked, when it is physically beaten, hammered or applied pressure on. Different levels of malleability are based on the crystal structure of the atoms in the metal.


Its a basic tool used in jewelry business to measure the ring or band sizing accurately. It is normally a tapered pole made of aluminum, steel, plastic or wooden shaped. Defining a mandrels exact shape it is a cylindrical tool used to round out wire and metal bands and come in a variety of lengths and widths. A mandrel can be marked or unmarked depending upon its usage. A ring mandrel mostly has grooved ring sizes marked on it to maneuver with sizing of the rings. One can also get an unmarked mandrel which helps in shaping wires for earrings or bending metal for rings.


A thin, elongated diamond with gently curved sides that come to a point on either end. Marquise is part of the brilliant cut family. This shape is used to maximize carat weight in the setting and give it a long, slender appearance.

Master Stones:

A set of diamonds by which jewelers can compare and grade the color of a particular stone from D to Z.


Precious metal is a rare metallic chemical element of high economic value that is used for art, jewelry and coinage. Chemically, precious metals are less reactive than most other elements, have high luster, are softer and have higher melting points than other metals. The most popular metals for jewelry are:


Is the mixing of two different cuts for one diamond, such as a brilliant cut crown and step-cut pavilion.

Mount or Mounting:

Is the part of jewelry into which a stone is set.

Mohs Hardness Scale:

A scale developed by Friedrich Mohs to quantify the hardness of minerals and gemstones. It utilizes a scratch test to rate diamonds on a scale of 1-10 (the higher the number, the harder the mineral will be).


A hollow form that gives shape to metal in its molten state.


The method of holding gemstones in place in jewelry. Settings, prongs, channels, etc., are mountings.


Is part of the natural surface of a rough diamond left on the girdle by the cutter striving for maximum weight retention


Is another name for a marquise cut diamond.


Is a quality of rough diamonds between gem and industrial.


The Northwest Gemological Laboratories (NGL), an industry leader in diamond grading.


Word describes the process of adding the eight main facets to the top and bottom of a stone, which makes its table octagon-shaped.

Open Culet:

Is a larger than normal culet.

Open Table:

Is a larger than normal facet.

Open Cast or Open Pit:

Describes mining from the surface.

Oval Shape:

An even and perfectly symmetrical elliptical shape; basically, similar to Round, but elongated.


The forming of an oxide from base metals such as the copper in sterling silver or a karat gold alloy combining, through heat, with oxygen and forming a coating of copper oxide. Not to be confused with the discoloration of silver by sulphur and its compounds.

Opening a Diamond:

It means polishing a window on a rough stone to see inside it.


Is the bottom part of a polished diamond below the girdle.

Pave Setting:

Many small gemstones placed in tapered holes creating a "paved" appearance. Usually diamonds are set in white gold to create a sparkled finish.


Refers to a roughly funnel-shaped, usually extrusion of volcanic rock that may or may not contain diamonds.


Is the hundredth of a carat, therefore 0.72 carats equal 72 points.

Polished Girdle:

Refers to a girdle that has been polished but not faceted.

Pear Shape:

A hybrid cut, combining the best of the oval and the marquise, the shape is similar to a teardrop or pear.


A smooth, lustrous, variously colored deposit, chiefly calcium carbonate, formed around a grain of sand or other foreign matter in the shells of certain mollusks and valued as a gem.

Penny Weight:

A unit of Troy weight, used for weighing precious metals. The pennyweight contains one-twentieth of an ounce. Abbreviated "dwt."

Per Carat Cost:

Total cost of a gemstone is equal to the carat weight X the per carat cost.


The Princess-cut is a very attractive square or sometimes rectangular cut, and it has some of the sparkle of a Round brilliant cut. Because of its design, this cut requires more weight to be directed toward the diamond's depth in order to maximize brilliance. It may have either 50 facets (21 crown, 4 girdle, 25 pavilion) or 58 facets (21 crown, 4 girdle, 33 pavilion), depending on how the pavilion is cut. Princess shapes of high cut quality usually have a table percentages between 60-75% and a total depth percentage between 65-80%.

Prong Metal:

The most popular and traditional setting, often referred to as a "Tiffany" or classic or claw setting. This setting normally has 4 or 6 individual claws of metal that hold a stone in place. You can learn more about settings in our Knowledge Center. Prong or claw setting: Consists of four or six prongs that cradle the stone. Because this setting allows the maximum amount of light to enter a stone from all angles, it can sometimes make a diamond appear larger and more brilliant than its actual weight.


The proportions of a diamond are very important, so that the maximum amount of light be reflected off and out of a stone. Proportion is the relationship between the angles of the facets of the crown and the pavilion.


Stronger than white gold, palladium is a pure white metal from the platinum family.


A white metal, and one of the hardest and more popular metals used in engagement rings today.


A square cut diamond with 96 facets: 49 brilliant style, 21 crown and 24 pavilion. This differs from a Princess, which has either 50 facets (21 crown, 4 girdle, 25 pavilion) or 58 facets (21 crown, 4 girdle, 33 pavilion), depending on how the pavilion is cut.


Measures the degree of excellence of a diamond by its weight, color, clarity and (polished) its perfection of cut.


A 70 facet rectangular or square shaped diamond with step and scissor cuts on the crown, a brilliant cut on the pavilion and emerald cut corners creating a vibrant and lively square diamond. First popular in the 1980's, the cropped corner square shape of the radiant is a nice bridge between a cushion and a princess cut, and for that reason looks beautiful set with both rounded or square cornered diamonds. The largest facets creates optimum color and clarity grading, the radiant cut diamond shows inclusion and imperfection easily. Radiant cut diamonds are an excellent choice for engagement and wedding rings.


Operations performed to extract metals in pure form from masses containing other metals or impurities. Crude metals are between 96 and 99 % principal metals, after extraction of raw materials and the rest being impurities. Crude metals cannot be used by industry at this stage and the impurities found in crude metals may have value in themselves. The three basic refining methods are pyrometallurgical, electrolytic, and chemical. Refining of diamond is a deep boiling process, be they raw or cut and polished. The process comprises of pre cleaning diamonds with solvents including alcohol, acetone, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove surface oil, hydrocarbons and other common surface impurities. The refining process of metals and diamond are essential to get the premium quality.


Refraction is when light enters a medium with a different optical density (like a gemstone), and the light is bent at an angle (and also changes its speed). Diamonds get their brilliance from three things- reflection, refraction and dispersion. Light moves through the diamond and it scatters, creating the sparkle that diamonds are actually known for. The light enters through top and then is angled around the inside of the diamond before being aimed back towards the top and out through the surface creating a rainbow effect and adds to shine.

Rough Girdle:

Surface of girdle is grainy or perforated often with nicks. A rough girdle is expressed as a blemish since it only occurs on the surface of the diamond. Rough girdle may or may not accompany bearding which occurs below the surface. A bearded girdle includes small inclusions below the surface and a rough girdle includes blemishes on the surface. Eventually a stone should have a rough girdle in order to produce the bearding (small feathers protruding into the stone). But bearding doesn't always occur with a rough girdle, as that relates to the amount of pressure the girdler has put on the stone during the girdling process. The roughness is obvious under magnification, revealing a granular surface that is unattractive. The value of salability of a diamond doesn’t depend on rough, the polish, symmetry and finish of the girdle, so cutting speed is the primary goal. An ideal girdle is wax and smooth in appearance.

Round Shape:

The most popular shape of diamond, round cut diamonds are brilliant-cut have 58 facets (57 when there is no culet). Assessing color in round cut diamonds is subjective. Round diamonds cost high on a per carat basis than fancy shapes for two reasons; the labor cost is relatively low and the demand for round diamonds is very high. Because more of the rough stone is lost in the cutting of a round diamond, the cost of each carat retained is higher. A typical round diamond (for example; a 1.00 carat, F-color, VS2-clarity, Ex cut) may cost 25-35% more than a similar fancy shape. The round diamond is generally superior to other diamond shapes at the proper reflection of lighting, maximizing brightness due to the mechanics of its shape. Among all the diamonds, round cut diamonds represents 75% of sales. Round shape diamonds are one of the most versatile of all styles and are available from small to large carat sizes. With its gentle vintage flair and eye catching fire and an impressive degree of fire and brilliance, the selection of attractive round engagement ring styles is nearly endless. The choice of round brilliant diamonds for solitaire ring, 3 stone rings and more, can easily be found in number of sizes and designs, couples tends to find an engagement ring readily available in their budget. A brilliant round diamond will also hide minute flaws in the diamond – color tints, inclusions and blemishes will not be so readily apparent. Round diamonds are suitable for everyday wear, with no sharp corners or edges, center stone is less prone to catch on hair or clothes and is less vulnerable to chipping or breaking.

Ruthenium (Ru):

Ruthenium is a shiny silvery metal and a rare polyvalent metallic element of the platinum group; it is found associated with platinum. Ruthenium was isolated in 1844 by Karl Karlovich Klaus, who obtained ruthenium from the part of crude platinum that is insoluble in aqua regia. Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. Ruthenium is usually found as a minor component of platinum ores; the annual production is about 20 tones.[4] Most ruthenium produced is used in wear-resistant electrical contacts and thick-film resistors. A minor application for ruthenium is in platinum alloys and as a chemistry catalyst. Ruthenium is also used in some advanced high-temperature single-crystal super alloys, with applications that include the turbines in jet engines. Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst. Ruthenium is one of the most effective hardeners for platinum and palladium, and is alloyed with these metals to make electrical contacts for severe wear resistance. It is used in some jewelry as an alloy with platinum. Ruthenium is one of the rarest metals on Earth. It is obtained commercially from the wastes of nickel refining.


A lustrous white, ductile, malleable metallic element, occurring both uncombined and in ores such as argentite, having the highest thermal and electrical conductivity of the metals, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used for electrical purposes. Silver is one of the scarcest elements. The leading producers are Mexico, USA, Russia, Australia and Canada. Silver is prepared in various ways depending upon the nature of its occurrence but especially in connection with the refining of lead and copper. It is highly valued for jewelry, tableware, and other ornamental use and is used in coinage, photography, dental and soldering alloys, electrical contacts, and printed circuits. The atomic number of this element is 47 and the element symbol is Ag. Silver was once referred to as one of the 'Noble Metals' which also included gold and platinum. Noble Metals were so called due to their long association with the aristocracy. Silver is a heavy, rather soft, white metal, very ductile and malleable and capable of taking a high polish. It surpasses all other metals as a conductor of heat and electricity, but is too costly to find extensive use for such purposes. It is also found alloyed with Gold. Silver is used in medicine for its caustic, astringent, and antiseptic effects.

Satin Finish:

Satin finish is a technique that dulls the surface of jewelry, etc through the use of a metal brush, sand blasting or treatment with chemicals. The soft matt sheen of a satin finish is similar to that of a brushed finished but more silken and even textured. Softly reflective, the satin finish adds depth and character to the jewelry but is subtle enough to work fabulously with any size and color of gemstone It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel then softening with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non-woven abrasive belt or pad. Brushing gives metal a distinctive look, as it retains some but not it’s entire metallic luster and is given a pattern of very fine lines parallel to the brushing direction. For this reason, it is commonly used for decorative items like jewelry and watches. It usually is in the lacquer used 30, 60, 90 sheen used most often. Higher the number, the more lack of a shiny finish will result. Satin finishes are normally left as is when finished spraying (out of gun finish). Satin finishes can also be leveled and made to shine also if polished, and vice versa, shiny lacquer can be dulled with certain techniques.


The “saturation” is defined as the strength and the depth of the diamond’s color. It is purity of a diamond's color; it’s the extent, to which a color departs from white to the pure color of a spectral color, generally indicating an absence of brown or green hues in the stone. The degree of chrome, the degree of freedom from admixture with white or how much color is present and how intense it is saturation of diamond, also called intensity and chroma or purity. The saturation of light varies from pastel to vivid, white dark tones ranging from dark to deep, high saturation means little white or low saturation means whiter or faded. Together, tone and saturation are used to described diamond color in a combined intensity grade in the following scale- Faint, Very Light, Light, Fancy Light, Fancy, Fancy Intense, Fancy Vivid, Fancy Deep, Fancy Dark.


Scintillation, also known as sparkle is the brilliancy of polished stones and degree of the returned light to the eye after refraction and reflection back out through the crown and an intense sparkling in a diamond as it moves. Under pin point or spot lights, fire also adds to scintillation. Ideally a diamond has many pleasing flashes spread across the surface of the stone, with few dull dead patches. Scintillation is an examination method of radioactive treated diamond, the stone placed on a zinc-sulfide screen in darkness, when the stone is examined with a magnifier tiny flashing light representing the effect of alpha-particles, which strike the phosphorescence screen, can be seen. What scintillation does is provide contrast for brilliant white, or fiery colored sparkles, making them appear brighter to the human eye.


The proper definition of scrap gold is discarded waste material, especially metal suitable for reprocessing. The term “scrap gold” refers to gold that is sent to a refiner to be melted down and recycled. Therefore, any item that contains gold and is meant to be reprocessed can be considered scrap gold. Gold is so valuable because there is only a fixed amount of it on earth, it cannot be produced in factories, but it can be used and reused over and over again. It is the ultimate recyclable material. An important characteristic of scrap gold is its purity, which tells you what percentage of an item is made up of actual gold and how much of the piece is made of other metals. The value of scrap gold depends on two main factors: weight and purity. Therefore, if you know the price of gold per unit of weight and you also know the karat of a piece of gold jewelry, you can estimate its value as scrap gold.


A semi-mount ring is an alternative to a ready-made, complete ring sold by jewelers. It bridges the gap between a completely custom-made ring and an off-the-shelf ring. The "mounting" of an engagement rings is the process of setting the focal diamond into the ring. It allows you to choose a setting and then choose a center stone, and have them assembled. This is popular with people who want to choose a loose diamond or other precious stone, or who already have a stone, and would like it mounted in an attractive ring setting. The nature of the semi mount-ring allows you greater flexibility; you can determine the carat weight or the cut of the gemstone, even after you have chosen the band.


A gemstone is a precious or a semi-precious stone used in jewelry. Any gemstone that is not a diamond, ruby, emerald or sapphire is a semi-precious gemstone. Calling a gemstone semi-precious does not mean it is less valuable than precious gemstones. Semi-precious gemstones are just usually more abundant (but there are a few exceptions) and a portion of mineral, in refined and cut form, is used to create jewelry or other embellishments. The value given to semi-precious gemstones depend largely on color, availably and quality. Because these gemstones typically have more sources, they are a good choice for larger, clean-eye stones and come in a rainbow of colors. Some semi-precious gemstones are not stones at all, but are made of organic material like amber, coral and pearl. This guide will reveal details about some of the most popular semi-precious gemstones - garnet, peridot, amethyst, citrine, blue topaz and turquoise.


The setting holds the stone in place. The combination of a shank and head make up a ring. Some popular settings are the Prong, Peg, Chanel, Bezel, and Pave.

Setting Metal:

Same as prong metal. The most popular and traditional setting, often referred to as a "Tiffany" or classic or claw setting. This setting normally has 4 or 6 individual claws of metal that hold a stone in place. You can learn more about settings in our Knowledge Center.

Shallow Cut:

Shallow cut refers to the angles and proportions a skilled craftsman creates in transforming a rough diamond into a finished diamond. Shallow cut diamonds are also known as spread diamonds and some stones are often cut this way to make them look bigger. When a diamond is cut too shallow, entering light strikes the pavilion facets at low angle and pass through the facets, escaping through the bottom of diamond. However, the illusion of size comes at the expense of reduced brilliance and sparkle. In general, whenever a cut deviates from the ideal proportions, some of the beauty of the diamond is lost.


The round section of the ring that fits around the ring finger is called both the band and the shank. When referred to as a band, like a wedding band, the ring generally has the same width on the entire perimeter. The shank sometimes refers to the ring sections on either side of the center setting. The combination of a shank and head (or setting) makes up a ring. Shanks come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are important factors in how rings sit on the finger. A proper ring shank gives comfort and security and helps prevent the ring from twirling.


The precious diamonds are chiseled by artisans to give rough diamonds different shapes. The various shapes are- round cut diamond, the most popular diamond shape and are brilliant-cut, meaning they have 58 facets. The princess cut diamond is traditionally a square cut making it an ideal combination of unique shape, sparkling appearance, and relative price value. Oval diamonds are a modified brilliant-cut, an ideal choice for a customer who likes the look of a round diamond, but wants something more unique. The football-shaped marquise diamonds long and narrow, they can also create the illusion of greater size. Pear shaped diamond is a combination of a round and a marquise shape, with a tapered point on one end. The cushion cut diamond combines a square cut with rounded corners, much like a pillow. The emerald cut diamonds produce a hall-of-mirrors effect, with the interplay of light and dark planes. The modern asscher cut diamond is similar to a square emerald cut, usually with larger step facets, a higher crown, and a smaller table. The radiant cut diamond is the first square cut to have a complete brilliant-cut facet pattern applied to both the crown and pavilion, creating a vibrant and lively square diamond. The modified brilliant-cut heart shaped diamond is a unique and unmistakable symbol of love, the cleft are sharp and distinct, and the wings have a very slightly rounded shape.

SI 1/SI 2 (Slightly Included):

These two grades of slightly included diamonds contain inclusions that are evident under 10x magnification and may be seen by the naked eye in some cases (generally in SI2 diamonds). If your goal is maximizing size and/or affordability, look at S1 and S2 diamonds. Many of these stones are what professionals call "eye-clean," meaning they have no visible inclusions.

Side Stone:

The side stones more popularly known as accent stones are small and have a simple cut. They are often used as a side decoration around the center stone of a ring, shank of the ring or another piece of jewelry like necklace, bracelet or, etc. These are widely popular because of their ability of adding grace in any piece of jewelry They are small and less visible; these diamonds are not cut with the full number of facets as is the case with normal-size stones. The side stones provide more sparkle and brilliance to the overall engagement ring. Unlike pave ring settings or channel set ring settings the side diamonds are more distinctive and bigger. Side stones can be flashy gemstones sapphires, rubies or topaz and scintillating diamonds of various shapes like rectangular, square, triangular or round shape.

Silver (Ag):

A metallic element, used in jewelry, coinage, dentistry, photography, etc. It is the whitest of metals, harder than gold, softer than copper, more malleable and ductile than any metal except gold, and probably the best conductor of heat and electricity.

Single Cut:

A simple cut of 17 - 18 facets, given to small diamonds.


Soldering is defined as the process of joining two pieces of metals using a filler metal, known as solder, having a low melting point below the melting point of the work piece. It is often confused with welding but the difference between them is, in soldering the work piece is not melted, they are joined using a filler metal, but in welding work piece is joined by melting. When two or more metals are melted together, they form an alloy that behaves as a unique material with specific properties that can significantly differ from the properties of the individual pure metals. It is especially useful in electronics and plumbing. Alloys that melt between 180 and 190 °C (360 and 370 °F) are the most commonly used.


A precious stone set by itself or a single-diamond engagement ring.


Is the skilled person who saw diamonds.


Are the rough diamonds that can be divided by sawing.


Is also spelled scaive or scaif, and refers to the horizontal turntable or grinding table on which a diamond is polished.


Is a diamond or other stone set in a mount.


Is the natural surface of the unpolished diamond.


Is the skilled person who separates rough diamonds into sizes and grades of quality by shape, color, and clarity.

Star Facets:

Are the eight triangular facets around the table of a diamond that make it star-shaped.


Symmetry refers to how precisely the various facets of a diamond align and intersect. Symmetry fault are imperfections or irregularities such as off-center, wavy girdle, out of-round diamond. Diamond Symmetry tells that how well aligned the facets of a diamond is i.e., do the edges of the facets on the top and bottom of the diamond line up along the girdle? A diamond with poor symmetry may misdirect light that travels into the diamond, sending it off at slightly wrong angles, and thereby reducing the diamond's brilliance. Often, a diamond cutter will purposefully allow a minor reduction in symmetry as a way of preventing a defect present in the rough stone from being retained as part of the finished diamond. Symmetry is more important in diamonds of VVS2 Clarity and higher, since the very subtle defects produced by fair or poor symmetry would compromise the diamond's otherwise flawless appearance. Despite its modest impact on appearance, symmetry has a significant impact on price; a diamond with excellent symmetry and polish may be priced 10%-15% higher than a diamond with good symmetry and polish.


Is the large facet on the top of the diamond's crown.


Describes a polished diamond that has been altered to change its appearance, eg by artificial coloration, that is, irradiation.

Tension Setting:

A tension set diamond is held in place by the pressure of the shank's metal, which is designed to "squeeze" the stone.


A scale designed to measure color intensity in a diamond. Values range from "light" to "dark."

Total weight/Carat Total Weight:

The total diamond carat weight of all the stones in a piece of jewelry.

Trillion Shape:

A triangular shaped diamond with 50 facets. Trillions are commonly used as side stones.

Troy Ounce:

A unit of Troy weight, long used for weighing precious metals. The ounce contains 20 pennyweights each of 24 grains.

Twinning Wisp:

An irregularity in a diamond's crystal structure that appears as a line inside the stone. Minor wisps are not visible to the naked eye and do not affect the clarity of the stone or compromise its integrity.

Ultrasonic Cleaner:

A cleansing agent dissolved in a solution and vibrated at frequencies higher than those audible to the human ear. At such vibrations, foreign matter and dirt are dislodged while the jewelry is being cleaned.

Wax Injector:

A device for forcing molten wax into a rubber or metal mold in order to make a wax pattern. Pressure for the wax injection is supplied by compressed air or hydraulic pressure.

White Diamond:

A diamond color grade approximately equivalent to GIA grades F, G, H, and AGS grades 1 and 2.


Is the facet polished on a rough diamond in order to see inside it.